Culture of Himachal Pradesh


About 90% of the population of Himachal Pradesh is Hindus. There main communities are Brahmins, Rajputs, Kannets, Rathis and Kolis. The tribal population of the state comprise of the Gaddis, Kinnars, Gujjars, Pangawals and Lahaulis. The Gaddis are the traditional shepherds who migrate from the alpine pastures to the lower regions during the winters. The Kinnars are the inhabitants of the Kinnaur region and practiced polyandry and polygamy. The Gujjars are nomads who rear buffalo herds. The Pangawals of the Pangi region of the Chamba district are both low and high caste Hindus. The Lahaulis of Lahaul and Spiti region are mainly Buddhists.
Arts and Craft
Thapada is a large embroidered shawl, which is a specialty of the handicraft of Himachal Pradesh. Other items of craft include the Kohana, a kind of a wall hanging, pillow covers, blouses and caps adorned with fine embroidery. The embroidered caps of the Kulu, Sirmair, Kinnaur and Lahaul regions are also very famous. The shawls from Kulu, woolen rugs and carpets from Lahaul, depicting the traditional Pahadi designs.

Beautiful patchwork quilts, rag dolls and elephants are also made in the area and comprise a necessary parts of bride's trousseau. The wool products are made in either the Byangi wool. Dyeing and printing of fabrics has been a traditional craft in the area. The Farahada and the Chhiba people do this work traditionally. Weaving of wool is a major cottage industry in itself. The highlanders of Lahaul-Spiti and Kinnaur weave dresses from it for special occasions such as festivals and weddings.
The Dom tribe is well known for producing fine household articles made of bamboo. They are later painted in bright colors. They manufacture boxes, sofas, chairs, baskets, racks and several articles used in daily life. Leather craft is extremely developed and the slippers and shoes made in Chamba are in large demand. The Himachalis are adept at the art of making pots and statuettes with clay in many shapes and sizes. These include pitchers, bowls, platters, cups, lamps and small and large pots. These are decorated with white patterns drawn with Golu clay. Toys and figures of gods and goddesses are made during festivals. The metal ware of Himachal Pradesh includes attractive utensils, ritualistic vessels, idols and silver jewellery. The local goldsmiths also craft fine gold ornaments. The jewellery by the woman of Kulu, Sirmaur, Kinnaur, Pangwati and Bharmor region is very attractive.

Dance and Music
The dance and music of the state is mainly religion-oriented where gods are invoked during the festivals by singing and dancing. This practice has continued since ancient times. The major dance of the state are the Rakshasa (dem0on) dance, the Kayang Dance, the Bakayang dance, the Bnayangchu dance, the Jataru Kayang dance, Chohara dance, Shand and Shabu dances, Lang-dar-ma dance, Nati dance, Jhanjhar dance, Jhoor dance, Gi dance and Rasa dance.
Musical instruments like Ranasingha, Karna, Turhi, Flute, Ektara, Kindari, Jhanjh, Manjara, Chimta, Ghariyal, and Ghunghru are played to provide music for the songs and the dances.
Fairs and Festivals
Fairs and festivals are an integral part of the Indian way of life. The colorful state of Himachal Pradesh has many fairs and festivals to celebrate throughout the year. The National Snow Statue Competition at Kufri near Shimla begins in the New Year. The ice-skating in Shimla begins around this time. The bonfires of Lohri, a festival to mark the sowing of the Rabi crop light up the night sky on January 13 every year. The skiing competitions are held at Solang Nullah in Manali in the month of February. A fair in the memory of the sage Baba Barbhag Singh is held at around the same time at Una. It is believed that the Baba had magical powers, which were used towards altruistic ends. The little kites dapple the horizon with their color during the Basant Panchami, the arrival of the spring.

Shivratri or the festival to celebrate the marriage of Shiva in March signifies ritual gaiety at the famous Baijnath shrine. The cattle fair is held at Nalwari in Bilaspur. Chait Durga Asthami is celebrated in the Shakti shrines at Hathkoti, Chitpurni, Jwalamukhi and Vajreshwari. Color and fun mix on Holi, the festival of colors at the Gurudwara at Paonta Sahib in Sirmaur. In April, Chhat celebrations are held in Kullu and Chamba. Paonta Sahib welcomes Hindu and Sikh devotees on Baisakhi. The Navratri begins this month. Fairs are held in Chamba, Bilaspur, Kangra and Rohru village in Shimla district.
A colorful celebration takes place around the old temple of Hidimba at Kullu, Doongri in May. Banjar Mela in Kullu also starts in the second half of the month. Paragliding season begin in Bir in Kangra. A variety of cultural events are held at Shimla, Dharamshala and Dalhousie during the month of June. The Prashar Fair is held in Mandi off the Prashar Lake. The Red Cross Fair in Shimla is a big draw with the tourists. The Himachal Folk Costumes Programme and the Flower Show in Shimla attracts active participation of the locals. Lahaul celebrates a unique festival called Cheeshu.
Haryali is celebrated in Kangra and Sirmaur and Shravan Sankranti in Nahan in the month of July. Buffalo fights are the highlight of the Sari fair held at Arki in the month of August. The Lahaul Festival is held near Keylong. Kaza's Ladarcha Fair is a commercial fair held on the old trade routes to Tibet and Afghanistan. The Manimahesh Yatra starts in the district of Chamba. The famous fair of Naina Devi in Bilaspur also takes place during August.
In the first week of September, Fullaich (Phulech) take place in Kinnaur while Kangra plays host to Sair. Chamba is the location for the colorful fair of Rath-Rathni. Dussehra is one of the most sacred festivals of the Hindu religion and is celebrated in October. The much talked about Dussehra celebrations start in Kullu with Navratri. The Pong Dam is the site of water sports championship held in the same month.
Diwali is celebrated throughout the state. On the banks of Sutlej, the Lavi fair is celebrated for three days. At Sirmaur, idols of Parasuram are immersed in the waters of Renuka Lake. Shimla has the tradition of celebrating Christmas since the days of the British Rule. To take part in the festivities, people come from far off places. The International Himalayan festival is held in Dharamshala in the second week of December. Attire
Sari is the most common garment that Himachali women wear nowadays. Traditional dresses comprises of Kameez, Kurta and Salwar in distinctive Himachali style. The Gaddi women wear the long knee length gown known as Juan chadiyan and their Chola, a white woolen garment. They wear a coat or waistcoat during winters. One can also see flap caps made of wool during winters. Woolen shirts with long coats and sleeveless woolen jackets on the top of the coat are the most preferred dress for men. These days men can be seen in shirts and trousers along with denims.
There is no specific cuisine of Himachal Pradesh. The influence of a long and close association with Punjab and large-scale migration of Tibetans can be on the cuisine of the state. Some of the unique Himachali recipes include Nasasta, a sweetmeat of the Kangra region; Indra, dish made of Urad dal; Baadi / Ghaunda, and Bada/Poldu of the Shimla region. The popular dishes of the state are Pateer, Chouck, Bhagjery and chutney of Til. Non-vegetarian food is quite popular and preferred in Himachal Pradesh.

Religion & Culture of Himachal Pradesh
¤ The People

The population of HP consists of a medley of tribes, all speaking their own language. Some of them are the Gaddis, Gujjars, Kinnauris, Lahulis and Pangwalis. The majority of the people are of Aryan stock, with exceptions like the inhabitants of Lahaul and Spiti who are distinctly of Mongol origin. Perhaps the most exotic among them are the Kinnauris, known for their extraordinary beauty and ornate jewellery.

¤ The Earliest Inhabitants

Before the coming of the Khasha Aryans were the Kols and Mundas. These people are represented by the various scheduled castes like the Kolis, Halis, Chamars, Darains, Rehars, Chanals, Lohars, Baris, Dagis, Dhakis or Turis, and form a considerable part of the population.

The great social fusion over the centuries, a process which is still going on, has resulted in many changes in the appearance and characteristics of these people. As such, like the rest of Northern India, they are ascribed to Aryan blood by mainstream historians.

¤ People Had A Simple Living

HP is the least urbanized of states in India, and so there’s an ‘untouched’ simplicity about its inhabitants. Living in a world of their own, the people are sometimes quite unaware of what’s happening in the rest of the country.
Their whole life seems to revolve around high peaks, near-accessible passes, rivers and deep valleys. All this makes for people who are essentially simple, honest, god-fearing and firmly rooted in the bedrock of the past. Ninety percent of the people live in distant ‘fairy tale’ villages and small towns, and depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Many also rear sheep, goats, and other cattle.

The traditional village house of Himachal has a rather interesting structure. The lowest storey is for household cattle, the middle for storing grain (also doubles as sleeping room for the family in winter) and the top floor or dafi forms the living area.

¤ The Gaddis of Chamba

The Gaddis are shepherds who move their flocks of sheep (which may range from a couple of hundred to a thousand in number!) from lower pastures in winter to higher ones after snowmelt. Interestingly, the Gaddis are only found scattered around the Dhauladhars. They call this area Gadheran or the land of the Gaddis. To them the Dhauladhars are not just a mountain range but like their mother.

The Gaddis move freely between Chamba and Kangra when the passes of the Dhauladhar allow them to do so. In winter they move down south and can be seen around Kangra, Mandi and Bilaspur and in the small villages between Baijnath and Palampur. Marriages between people living on opposite sides of the Dhauladhar are common.

A typical song of a bride living in her in-laws’ house on the other side runs thus

Oh Mother Dhauladhar
Bend a little
O bend a little
On this side lies my mother-in-law’s place
On the other side lies my father’s place
Bend yourself a little
Bend a little
O bend a little.

¤ Religion

In the northern quarter is divine Himalaya,
The lord of the mountains,
Reaching from Eastern to Western Ocean,
Firm as a rod to measure the earth…

There demigods rest in the shade of clouds,
Which spread like a girdle below the peaks,
But when the rains disturb them
They fly to the sunlit summits….
Kalidas, 5th century AD Sanskrit poet

For thousands of years Indians, and especially the Hindus, have looked upon the mighty Himalayas with awe and reverence. For them it is the abode of the gods. There Shiva, the great god of destruction (belonging to the holy Trinity of Creator-Preserver-Destroyer), sat in deep meditation until Parvati, the himalaya-putri (daughter of the mountains), succeeded in winning his love. Temples of Shiva and Parvati abound in these mountains and thousands of pilgrims from the plains make their arduous climb to them each year.

¤ The Celebrations

Himachal is dotted with quaint Pagoda-like or shikhara styled (spired) temples. Most of these have fascinating legends attached to them. (Ask the locals, and they’ll be only too glad to share them with you.) While festivals are special occasions for celebration, worship is a part of daily life. Hinduism was brought to these hills by the immigrant Rajput tribes of the 5th to the 15th century.

But the Hinduism practiced here is in its more lenient form – the caste system is less rigid than elsewhere in India. The people have their own distinct flavour of the Hindu religion, especially in the upper hills.
They have combined local legends and popular beliefs with the beliefs of Hinduism. The gram devta (village god) cult is a case in example. It is a curious mix of animism, demonism and Hinduism. The rugged landscape seems to have inspired such awe in the paharis (people of the mountains) that they have deified the diverse manifestations of nature.

¤ Buddhism Religion

More than 95% of the population of HP is Hindu but Buddhism has also made inroads in to the state thanks to the nearness to Tibet and presence of the Dalai Lama at Dharamsala.

The ashen valleys of Lahaul, Spiti and Kinnaur are made brilliant by the Buddhist way of life.
At times the demarcation between Hinduism and Buddhism is very faint in these hill regions. For example, the rituals of the Kinnauris are a mix Buddhist and Hindu practices. The hundreds of gompas and monasteries here serve as a veritable library for the student of Buddhism. No wonder HP is said to be God’s Own Country.

¤ Churches

There are also several notable churches and Sikh gurudwaras in the state. Christianity came in with the British, of course, who dashed to these mountains whenever the heat of the plains got to them. Shimla, Kasauli and Dalhousie served as the most important British retreats, and so have the most well known churches of the state. St-John-in-the-Wilderness in Dharamsala is also quite an attraction.Sikhism, too, is practiced in a few places in Himachal. Paonta Sahib in Sirmaur district is a major pilgrimage for Sikhs, and so is beautiful Manikaran in the Kullu Valley. The Sikhs played an important role in the history of Himachal and Guru Govind Singh, one of the ten founders of the religion, began his career on this very land.

¤ A New God Everyday?

Everybody knows that India is simply crawling with both gods and people. But Kullu valley is way ahead in that such a small part of the country alone boasts of 365 gods! and of course these gods and goddesses have many amusing tales to tell. Sample this one, it links the mountain goddess Hadimba to the royal house of the former Kullu State. Hadimba has a charming temple dedicated to her in Manali in the Kullu Valley.

Anyway, driven by drought, a poor man by the name of Bihang Mani Pal from Haridwar (in Uttar Pradesh) reached the Kullu valley in search of water. Soon he became an apprentice to a potter in this new place. One day as he was carrying pots to the market, he came upon an old woman who was actually the demoness Hadimba in disguise. Hadimba lifted him on her shoulders and promised to make him king of all he surveyed if he worshipped her as a goddess. Pal did exactly so. and lo! Bihang Mani Pal became king of Kullu and Hadimba his patron deity.

¤ Rituals

Each community in Himachal has its own set of rites and rituals that is preserved zealously. The customs and manners of these hill people are somewhat different from those of the plains. For instance, in some parts of Shimla and Sirmaur a reverse dowry system is practiced – the groom’s father pays a sum of money to the bride’s father to meet the expenses of marriage. This practice is known as dhari.

An amusing system of betrothal among some Himachalis, especially the agricultural classes, is the atta-satta ka nata. A series of marriages are arranged by the relatives of marriageable girls and boys. Thus, a father promises his daughter’s hand to another’s son on the condition that the latter give his daughter to a third man’s son, who in turn promises his daughter to the first man. Sometimes there are five or six links in the chain, and one breach nullifies the whole arrangement.

¤ The Marriage Rituals

Marriage by elopement, called haar, is sanctioned in HP, especially among the lower castes. and not just that, the setting for such an affair is also delineated!
The occasion happens in a fair or a neighbourhood marriage.Polyandry is not uncommon in Himachal, especially in Kinnaur. This might be linked to the story of Draupadi, wife of the five Pandava brothers. According to local legend, the Pandavas and Draupadi sojourned to the Sangla valley during their incognito exile (See Mahabharata for details).
It is said that they built a fort here to protect themselves from their hostile cousins, the Kauravas.

Draupadi soon came to be worshipped here as a deity. The practice of marrying a widow/widower to an unmarried brother-in-law/sister-in-law (husband’s younger brother/wife’s younger sister) is most prevalent in Himachal. Serving meat and chhang (country liqueur) is also a must in some marriages. Such rituals of marriage in the hills turn topsy-turvy the traditional Vedic marriage and notions of propriety prevalent in the plains.

¤ Birth Customs Rituals

Like all rituals of the people of HP, the birth customs, too, have a quaint local touch. During the wife’s pregnancy, the husband refrains from killing any animal with his own hands, though he may eat meat.

The woman is also not allowed to see the face of a dead person, or go near a burning place, stream or forest. Immediately after the birth of her child, the woman is given a mixture of ghee (clarified butter) and gur (jaggery) to drink.
Sometimes liqueur is also given; a ritual which, in the plains, would shock most people out of their skins. The namkaran or naming ceremony among the Kolis (a particular caste) is rather unique. Boys are named after the day or month of their birth – like Savaru from Somwar (Monday), Mangloo from Mangalwar (Tuesday), Basakhu from Baisakh (April-May), and so on.

¤ Language

Thanks to the many tribes – each with its own language and dialect – Himachal boasts of more than 60 dialects. These are Chambyali, Pangwali, Lahauli, Kinnauri and so on. In places with a Buddhist population, Tibetan is the language.

But the state’s main language is Pahari, a derivation from Sanskrit and Prakrit, which is largely unintelligible to plain dwellers. See the section Language and Literature for more on Sanskrit and Prakrit. Hindi is also spoken widely and is the language of instruction in schools. With Himachal’s close proximity to Punjab, Punjabi is the medium of communication in some places.

¤ Festivals & Fairs

The endless succession of festivals and fairs forms an important part of the cultural life of Himachal.
There are few places where religious ceremonies are as inventive or as frequent as in this state. Each year sees a cycle of rituals and festivals with melas (fairs) full of fun and frolic. So it’s almost like a yearlong party for the people up there. The main festivals are Holi, Dussehra and Diwali, brought into the fold by the immigrant Rajputs from the plains, but there are also hundreds of local celebrations.

Sometimes these have to do with the gram devta (village god) and at other times with the seasons. Thus, the arrival of winter is marked by the ‘feast of bonfire’, and summer by the ‘festival of flowers’.

More than having a strictly religious import, these festivals are a time to dress up in all sorts of finery and go socializing or shopping. Should you find a crowd of bedecked people moving en masse over the hills to another village, you can confidently follow them in the hope of reaching a mela.

¤ Dussehra Festival

Himachal is famous for its weeklong Dussehra Festival celebrated at Kullu. Though the event is meant to honour Lord Raghunathji (Rama of the Ramayana fame), it has little to do with the tradition of the Ramayana. It’s basically a get-together for all the devtas (gods) of the valley who come in their dolis (palanquins) to the Dhalpur maidan (field). The celebrations which follow are truly on a grand scale. See Kullu for more.

¤ Exhibitions

Anyway, apart from the religious festivals, HP also has a number of festivals which are secular in nature. These relate mostly to arts and crafts exhibitions, winter sports, and the like. Here’s a list of such festivals. Do check with the Himachal Tourism Development Corporation for the exact dates.
Festival/Fair Where it’s at When What’s in it
National Snow Statue Competition Kufri January Snow statue-making competitions.
Folk Dance Competition Shimla January Dance competitions.
All India Water Sports Regatta Pong Dam January, October Swimming, canoeing, kayaking, rowing, sailing, water surfing and so on.
Winter Carnival Manali February Skiing competitions
Winter Sports Festival Kufri February Winter sports contests
Nalwari Fair Bilaspur March A trade fair, with entertainment like wrestling and so on.
TIPA (Tibetan Institute of Performing Arts) Festival McLeodganj April Opera festival including folk dances and plays.
Sipi Fair Mashobra May A handicrafts bazaar.
Hang Gliding rally Billing May Hang gliding
Summer Festival Shimla, Dharamsala, Dalhousie June Cultural programmes, art & handicrafts exhibitions, golf tournament, and flower shows.
Ladarcha Fair Kaza July A trade festival.
International Folk Festival Kullu October Handicrafts exhibitions, music, dance and the like.
Lavi Fair Rampur November A trade fair, with everything from fruits to horses sold or bartered.
Himalaya Festival McLeodganj December Troupes from all the Himalayan countries (Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet) participate in the cultural programmes.
Ice Skating Carnival Shimla December Ice-skating of course, with fancy dress & other competitions, and the grand finale of a torchlight tattoo.

Cuisine of Himachal Pradesh

The preferred taste in Himachal varies from region to region. Non-vegetarian food, with a generous dose of spices like cardamom, cinnamon, cloves and red chillies, is very much the norm. The average Himachal kitchen churns out all sorts of meat, lentil and cereal preparations.

¤ Simple Eating Habits

However there may be local variations. For instance, in the barren regions of Kinnaur and Lahaul-Spiti, there is more emphasis on locally-grown coarse grains like buckwheat, millet and barley. In areas with a pastoral tradition, milk and its products are liberally used in cooking. Himachalis are not particularly fond of vegetarian fare and till recently tubers like potatoes and turnips were all they ate in the name of vegetables. Green vegetables, however, are increasingly finding their way into Himachali kitchens.

While the everyday meal is the usual dal-chawal-subzi-roti (the common north Indian meal of rice, lentil broth, dish of vegetables and bread), special dishes are cooked during festive occasions.

Famous Sidu is a kind of bread made from wheat flour. It is kneaded with yeast and the dough is allowed to rise for 4-5 hours. With a stuffing of fat it is first browned over a slow fire and then steamed. Sidu is normally eaten with ghee (clarified butter), dal (lentil broth) or mutton. In many parts of the state, ankalos made of rice flour are a festive dish. In the dry Lahaul-Spiti valley, the leaves of buckwheat are mixed with wheat flour and made into cakes called aktori. Patande (a sort of pancake) is a specialty in the Sirmaur area.

¤ The dham -- A Famous Traditional Festive Meal

Dham is cooked only by botis (a particular caste of Brahmins who are hereditary chefs). Preparations for this elaborate mid-day meal begins the night before. It is served in courses on epattalsi or leaf plates. In the Chamba region, the typical menu for a dham would start with rice, moong dal (green lentil broth) and a madrah of rajma (red kidney beans) cooked in yoghurt. This is followed by boor ki kari and a dark lentil (mash dal). Topped by khatta (sweet and sour sauce) made of tamarind and gur (jaggery), the dham ends with the mittha (dessert) – sweet rice, liberally mixed with raisins and dry fruit.

¤ Himachal Hospitality

Himachalis are most hospitable, and inviting an ‘acquaintance’ (this could be someone they’ve just met!) home is a way of life. The host will then offer whatever food there is in the house, for they believe that a guest should not leave without eating. In case you have no time for it or turn down the offer for some reason, you will find something being stuffed into your bag – be it just green apples!

Marriage in Himachal
Every community,region,religion has its own set of customs and manners .Marriage customs in Devbhoomi Himachal not only differ from one done in rest of India but also within state.Kundli(Horoscope) still plays a vital role in match making.Marriage in same gotra and inter cast marriages are still not considered good.Once the horoscopes match then priest fixes date of marriage .Different districts of Himachal has different marriage customs .Bride and Groom are carried in Palki in some places .Boy has to wear Dhoti to perform some rituals in marriage.Girl normally wear a suit(Now a days Lehngas are also popular).Bride is given jewelry ,cloths etc by grooms family .Bride is also given jewelry by her maternal uncle and family.Dham(Lunch served) is one of attraction of Himachali marriage .

Marriage is an important ceremony in Himachal. The parents are also the closer elders relatives begin to look around for suitable matches as soon as the child is old enough. Sometimes a middleman is used as a match-maker known as Roovary, Dhamu or Mazomi. He finds out the details about the social and financial standing of the family and the final decision is taken on the basis of the horoscopes. Matches in the same Gotra are not considered very good. When the match is settled the ritual gift called Tika is sent. The groom and his family are invited to tea. On this occasion ritual songs are sung and sweets are distributed. In the tribal areas both the parties exchange Chhang (rice wine) and close relatives are invited to participate in the ceremony. In some areas during the various festivals, gifts of jewellery and clothes are sent to the betrothed. In Kinnaur this system is known as Chharmi Nata, elsewhere it is known as sending the Tihar.
The date for the wedding is set in consultation with the priest. In some places the permission of the deities is also sought. Customarily all the preparations for the wedding are to be kept a secret from the bride. In Kinnaur as the wedding party approaches the house, the bride and her friends begin to wail and weep.
Marriage customs differ from place to place in Himachal. The bride and the groom are carried in palanquins except in the Lahaul area. The girl touches her father's feet at the time of her departure. People in Kinnaur follow a matriarchal system where all the brothers share a wife and if there are more than six brothers then another may be brought in. All the brothers are looked upon as common fathers to the children. The eldest is known as Teg Bawal and the youngest as Gota Bawal.
A maid (barber's wife or Pachekan) accompanies the bride temporarily from her father's house to help her settle down in the midst of her new family. In Lahaul when the groom departs with the bride the girl friends of the bride block his path till the groom promises them that he will take good care of their dear friend.
The day the bride enters the new household, a special Havan is performed under the guidance of the family priest. The bride and the groom cook kheer (rice pudding) and it is served to all the assembled relatives who bless them. At the time of Feroni (the ritual return of the bride after her first visit from her father's house-also known as Dwiragaman) the bride and groom are welcomed with great joy and fed sweets and butter.
At the time of the wedding, the Suhagi jewellery (denoting a girls married status) is presented by the Mama and the rest is given by the parents of the bride and the groom. The groom's family displays their gifts (Barasuhi) to the bride, to all assembled, so that they may judge their financial status. Among the poorer sections, the gifts and the cash to be given to the bride by her family at the time of the wedding are fixed in advance.
In the plains, the bride's brother presents the groom with a 'dhoti' and a ring and ushers him to the place where the marriage ceremony is to take place. In the areas of Kinnaur the bride's father presents the groom with a white turban and ties a sword or a dagger to his waist band to indicate the start of the ceremonies. All this time wine cups are also presented to both the match-maker and the groom. When the marriage party returns with the bride it is greeted by the fellow villagers holding torches. Goats are sacrificed and special rituals are performed to ward off evil spirits and ghosts.

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